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Abstract.Recently lower bounds on the minimum required size for the
conversion of deterministic finite automata into regular expressions and
on the required size of regular expressions resulting from applying some
basic language operations on them, were given by Gelade and Neven .
We strengthen and extend these results, obtaining lower bounds that are
in part optimal, and, notably, the presented examples are over a binary
alphabet, which is best possible. To this end, we develop a different, more
versatile lower bound technique that is based on the star height of regular
languages. It is known that for a restricted class of regular languages, the
star height can be determined from the digraph underlying the transition
structure of the minimal finite automaton accepting that language. In
this way, star height is tied to cycle rank, a structural complexity measure
for digraphs proposed by Eggan and Büchi, which measures the degree
of connectivity of directed graphs.
One of the most basic theorems in formal language theory is that every regular
expression can be effectively converted into an equivalent finite automaton, and
vice versa . While algorithms accomplishing these tasks have been known for
a long time, there has been a renewed interest in these classical problems during
the last few years. For instance, new algorithms for converting regular expressions
into finite automata outperforming classical algorithms have been found only
recently, as well as a matching lower bound of Ω(n · log2 n) on the number of
transitions required by any equivalent nondeterministic finite automaton (NFA).
The lower bound is, however, only attained for growing alphabet size, and a
better algorithm is known for constant alphabet size, see  for the current
state of the art.
In contrast, much less is known about the converse direction, namely of con-
verting finite automata into regular expressions. Apart from the fundamental
nature of the problem, some applications lie in control flow normalization, in-
cluding uses in software engineering such as automatic translation of legacy
code . All known algorithms covering the general case of infinite languages
are based on the classical ones, which are compared in the survey . The
drawback is that all of these (structurally similar) algorithms return expressions
of size 2O(n) in the worst case, and Ehrenfeucht and Zeiger exhibit a family
of languages over an alphabet of size n2 for which this exponential blow-up is
inevitable . These examples naturally raise the question whether a size blow-
Ω(n)up of 2 can also occur for constant alphabet size, a question posed in .
One of the main results in this paper is a positive answer to this question, even
in the case of a binary alphabet; note that the conversion problem becomes
polynomial for unary languages . Currently, there are not many lower bound
techniques for regular expression size. A notable exception is the technique used
in the above mentioned work , which however requires, in its original version,
a largely growing alphabet. Recently, a variation of Ehrenfeucht and Zeiger’s
method was used in  to get similar but weaker lower bounds on the conver-
sion problem for small alphabets. The above mentioned question, however, was
left open. A technique based on communication complexity that applies only for
finite languages, is proposed in . They give an optimal bound of nΘ(log n) for
the conversion problem in the case of finite languages.
Independently of , we take a different direction, by relating the descrip-
tional complexity of regular languages (alphabetic width) to their structural
complexity (star height). The star height is a structural complexity measure of
regular languages that has been intensively studied in the literature for more
than 40 years, see [11,15] for a recent treatment. Determining the star height
can be in some cases reduced to the easier task of determining the cycle rank
of a certain digraph. The latter concept is related to the cycle rank of digraphs,
a digraph connectivity measure defined by Eggan and Büchi  in the 1960s.
Since measuring the connectivity of digraphs is a very active research area, see,
e.g., [1,2,14,22], and as we feel that cycle rank is a interesting concept in its own
right, we summarize and further develop the theory of cycle rank. For a more
thorough treatment, including all proofs and comparison to some other recently
proposed measures we refer to . These connections turn out to be fruitful,
allowing not only for proving a tight lower bound on the problem of convert-
ing finite automata into regular expressions, but also for giving reasonably good
lower bounds for the alphabetic width of some basic regular language operations,
namely intersection, complement, and shuffle. In this way, we independently im-
prove on and extend the recently obtained results in —we summarize and
compare the obtained results in Table 1.